There is no written evidence that tells us exactly who coined the phrase educational technology. Different educators, scientists, and philosophers have put forward different definitions of educational technology at different time intervals. Educational technology is a multifaceted and integrated process involving people, ideas, equipment, and organization. These implement, evaluate and manage solutions to problems associated with all aspects of human learning.
Evolution Of Technology
Educational technology, broadly speaking, has gone through five stages.
- The first level of educational technology is associated with the use of aids such as charts, maps, models, samples, and concrete materials.
- The second stage of educational technology is associated with the “electronic revolution” with the introduction of sophisticated hardware and software. The use of various audio-visual aids like projectors, magic lanterns, radio, and television has brought a revolutionary change. Accordingly, the concept of educational technology has been adopted in terms of these sophisticated tools and devices. They are for the effective presentation of learning materials.
- The third stage of educational technology is associated with the development of mass media. This led to a “communication revolution” for teaching purposes. During this era, computer-assisted instruction (CAI), used for education since the 1950s, also became popular.
- The fourth stage of educational technology is recognizable by the individualized teaching process. The invention of programmed learning and programmed teaching provided a new dimension to educational technology.
The latest conception of instructional technology is influenced by the concept of systems engineering, or the systems approach. This focuses on language laboratories, learning machines, programmed instruction, and multimedia technology. Educational technology is a systematic way of designing, implementing, and learning process in terms of specific research-based objectives.
All The Way Back
Educational technology in the Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages
Educational technology, despite the uncertainty of the origin of the term, can be traced back to the periodization of the three-age system of human prehistory; namely the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.
In the Stone Age, the ignition of fire by rubbing stones. The manufacture of various hand weapons and implements from stones. The practice of clothing was the simple technological advance of the highest importance. A fraction of Stone Age people developed the technology of ocean-going outrigger ships to migrate from one place to another across the ocean. They developed their first informal education in the knowledge of ocean currents, weather conditions and star maps.
During the Younger Stone Age (Neolithic period), polished stone tools for agricultural practice were produced from various hard rocks. They are produced mainly by digging underground passages. These can be considered the first steps in mining technology. Polished axes were so effective that even after the discovery of bronze and iron
Although Stone Age cultures left no written records, archaeological evidence has shown their shift from nomadic life to an agricultural settlement. Ancient tools are preserved in various museums, cave paintings like Altamira Cave in Spain, and other prehistoric art. Such as Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess of Laussel in France, etc. . These are some of the evidence in favour of their cultures.
The Neolithic Revolution of the Stone Age
Neolithic Revolution of the Stone Age led to the emergence of the Bronze Age with the development of agriculture, the domestication of animals, and the adoption of permanent settlements. For these practices, Bronze Age people further developed metal smelting, with their materials of choice being copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper.
Iron Age Technology
Iron Age people replaced bronze and developed knowledge of iron smelting technology to lower the cost of living, as iron utensils were stronger and cheaper. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last period before the development of written writing.
Educational technology in the period of ancient civilizations
In every phase of human civilization, an instructional technique or set of procedures designed to implement a certain culture can be found, For which have also been supported by a number of investigations and evidence. The more advanced the culture became, the more complex became the technology of instruction. Over the centuries, every major shift in educational values, goals, or objectives has led to different instructional technologies.
The greatest advances
The greatest advances in technology and engineering occurred with the rise of ancient civilizations. These advances stimulated and nurtured other societies in the world to adopt new ways of living and governing.
The civilization flourished
The civilization flourished mainly around the Indus River Basin in the Indus and Punjab region. They extended up to the Ghaggar-Hakra River Valley and the Ganga-Yamuna Doab. India and some parts of the civilization extend as far as southeastern Afghanistan
There is a long-standing controversy about the language the Harappan people spoke. As a result, it is believed that their writing was at least ostensibly or pictorial. The script seems to have had about 400 basic characters with a lot of variation. Thus, people write their script with a direction generally from right to left.